History of saffron:
Saffron is the most valuable herbs that originated from slopes of Alvandmountains. It was exported to many parts of the world by Iranian since ancient times. They also introduced it’s properties to Greeks, Romans, chinese and arab people. In the first and forth centuries A.H, the horticulture of it was taught to Muslims around the Meditaranean. The first farms of saffron in the world (in Hamedan, Nahavand, Boroujerd and Kermanshah areas) had created in Maad state and then was expanded to Rey, Qom, Esfahan and some coastal areas of Caspian sea and pars state. After it, the cultivation of saffron became usual in Maavara and Khorasan region and finally Ghohestan (Qaenat) became center of the mass production of high quality saffron. Iranians have had the world production and trade of saffron and now, Khorasan has the most quality and quantity of saffron in the world.
Medicinal properties :
- Soothing , sedative & relaxing
- Strengthening mind & memory
- Antitumor (cancer)
- Tooth pain sedative
- Asthma treatment
- Relieve insomnia (sleeplessness)
- Skin freshness
Introducing saffron scientifically :
Saffron is a perennial herb of Iridaceae and a species of crocus sativus. It can take root between 3 to 5 cm below the soil. At ground level, it consist of 6 to 9 thin leaves and a long horny purple flower with 6 petals.Stamens lead to tubularspeals.Pistil places in the middle of flower, that has a bulbous shape ovary. A thin yellow stem comes within the ovary that is called “Filament”. Filament is divided to 3 gloss, dark orang and jagged stigmas that have 3 cm long. These stigmas use as commercial product after dried it. Saffron is propagated by bulbs. Bulbs produce and destroy white and Juicy bulblets around themselves every year. Saffron has much known and unknown properties and characteristics, especially from botanical and agricultural aspects. Saffron of Iran is worth to study more precise& more expanded.
Growing season of saffron is autumn and in spring it’s leaves start to falling. Saffron not only is a “fragrant plants” that uses as perfume, but also this magical and immortal herb with magical colour, smell and taste has uncountable uses and properties. It seems that unknowing about saffron is more than knowing things.
Sources : Mohammad Hassan Abrishami, “saffron of Iran” HosseinHosseinzadeh, “saffron, the third millennium medicinal herb”